One of the most helpful tools for making smart food choices is the Nutrition Facts label. Every food package has one—and it can provide a lot of important information. Here’s how to read it.
1. Check the serving size
The serving size is a specific amount of food or drink using a common measurement, as well as how many servings are in the container or package. Note that 1 package may contain more than 1 serving and more than the amount of calories, fat, and other nutrients listed for a single serving.
2. The difference between a portion and a serving
A serving size is standardized—it describes a specific amount of food or drink. The serving size often equates to the amount recommended in consumer education materials. A portion may vary—it is the amount of food you choose to eat at one time.
This number is helpful when you’re trying to lose, gain, or maintain weight. Based on the General Guide to Calories and a 2,000-calorie diet, 40 calories is low, 100 calories is moderate, and 400 calories or more is high for snacks.
One healthy way to cut calories is to reduce the amount of added sugars, fats, and alcohol—because they have few or no essential nutrients.
- Calorie-free means less than 5 calories per serving.
- Low calorie means 40 calories or less per serving.
3. Limit sodium, fat, and cholesterol
Eating too much fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, or sodium may increase the risk of chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and some cancers. Health experts recommend keeping saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol as low as possible for a nutritionally balanced diet.
Watch the sodium in your diet
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming less than 2,300 mg (approximately 1 teaspoon of salt) a day. For people with chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and for African Americans, or middle-aged and older adults, the recommendation drops to no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day.
- Sodium free or salt-free means less than 5 mg of sodium per serving.
- Low sodium means 140 mg of sodium or less.
- Reduced sodium or less sodium means at least 25% less sodium than the regular version.
Healthy amounts of fat
The recommended total fat intake for adults over 19 years of age is between 20% and 35% of calories per day.
The type of fat makes a difference
Consuming less than 10% of saturated fatty acids and replacing them with monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats can potentially protect your heart by lowering your blood cholesterol.
- Low fat means 3 grams or less of total fat per serving.
- Low saturated fat means 1 gram or less of saturated fat and 15% or less of calories from saturated fat.
- Reduced fat means at least 25% less fat than the regular version.
Cholesterol in food
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends less than 300 mg of cholesterol each day. Reducing saturated fat in your diet may also reduce your cholesterol.
- Cholesterol free means less than 2 mg of cholesterol per serving and food contains 2 g or less saturated fat, per Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACC).
- Low cholesterol means 20 mg of cholesterol or less and food contains 2 g or less saturated fat, per RACC.
- Reduced cholesterol or less cholesterol means at least 25% less cholesterol than a regular version of that food and food contains 2 g or less saturated fat, per RACC.
4. Get enough fiber, calcium, and iron
Eating enough dietary fiber, calcium, and iron can help improve health and help reduce the risk of some health conditions. The label shows how much of these nutrients are in the food you eat.
Healthier foods provide higher amounts of dietary fiber and whole grains without added sugars.
- Excellent source of fiber means 5 grams or more of fiber per serving.
- Good source of fiber means 2.5 to 4.9 grams of fiber per serving.
Recommended daily allowances (RDA) for calcium and iron:
|Sex and Age||Calcium RDA|
|Men 19-70||1,000 mg|
|Men 70+||1,200 mg|
|Women 19-50||1,000 mg|
|Women 50+||1,200 mg|
|Women who are pregnant||1,000 mg|
|Women who are breastfeeding||1,000 mg|
|Sex and Age||Iron RDA|
|Men 18+||8 mg|
|Men 70+||8 mg|
|Women 18+||18 mg|
|Women 50+||8 mg|
|Women who are pregnant||27 mg|
|Women who are breastfeeding||9 mg|
5. Understanding the footnote section
This footnote is found only on larger food packages and does not change from product to product. It shows the recommended dietary information for important nutrients based on 2,000- and 2,500-calorie diets.
6. Percent Daily Values
The Percent Daily Values (or %DV on some labels) tells you how much of a specific nutrient 1 serving of food contains compared with what is recommended for the whole day (based on a 2,000-calorie diet). Here’s a quick way to look at it: 5% Daily Value or less is low, and 20% Daily Value or more is high (for a 2,000-calorie diet). Checking Percent Daily Values can help you:
- Make comparisons. You can check 2 brands of the same food to see which one has more or less nutrients per serving size.
- Check product claims. For example, you can use the Percent Daily Value to help you quickly distinguish one claim from another.
Some nutrients do not have Percent Daily Values on the Nutrition Facts label. For instance, for protein, a Percent Daily Value is listed only if a claim such as high in protein is printed on the package. There is not a Percent Daily Value for sugars or trans fat. To limit these nutrients, consider comparing labels of similar products and choose the food with the lowest amount.